1. Low noise microwave signal generators, using
    • Cryogenic sapphire-resonator loop oscillator techniques;
    • Room temperature optical micro-toroidal resonator techniques
  2. Low noise signal synthesisers, using
    • Low noise frequency division;
    • Low noise phase-locked loops and low noise quartz oscillators;
    • Regenerative dividers;
    • Frequency transfer techniques.
  3. Low noise signal distribution over optical fibres, using
    • RF amplitude modulation;
    • RF phase modulation;
    • Frequency comb at optical frequencies where the comb spacing is an RF frequency;
    • Fibre noise cancellation techniques are employed.