- Low noise microwave signal generators, using
Low noise signal synthesisers, using
- Cryogenic sapphire-resonator loop oscillator techniques;
- Room temperature optical micro-toroidal resonator techniques
Low noise signal distribution over optical fibres, using
- Low noise frequency division;
- Low noise phase-locked loops and low noise quartz oscillators;
- Regenerative dividers;
- Frequency transfer techniques.
- RF amplitude modulation;
- RF phase modulation;
- Frequency comb at optical frequencies where the comb spacing is an RF frequency;
- Fibre noise cancellation techniques are employed.